Archives: Encryption

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Massachusetts Continues Aggressive Information Security Enforcement Agenda

On July 23, 2014, the Massachusetts Attorney General announced a consent judgment with Women & Infant’s Hospital of Rhode Island (“WIH”) to resolve allegations that it violated federal and state information security laws when it lost backup tapes.  The backup tapes, allegedly containing sensitive personal information and protected health information of 12,127 Massachusetts residents, were … Continue Reading

10 Years After SB 1386, California Attorney General Issues First Ever Report and Recommendations on Data Breaches

As most know, California was the first state in the country, only 10 years ago, to pass the first ever state data security breach notification law, SB 1386, codified at California Civil Code sections 1798.29 and 1798.82.  Last year, SB 24 amended the law, effective January 1, 2012, to require organizations issuing a security breach … Continue Reading

California AG Releases Mobile App Guidelines; Industry Responds

Last week, California Attorney General Kamala Harris released a set of recommendations titled “Privacy on the Go” directed toward the mobile app industry that seeks to “educate the industry and promote privacy best practices.”  The guidelines separately address app developers, app platform providers, mobile ad networks, operating system providers, and mobile carriers. A coalition of … Continue Reading

Legal Implications of Cloud Computing — Part Five (Ethics or Why All Lawyers-Not Just Technogeek Lawyers Like Me-Should Care About Data Security)

So, you thought our cloud series was over? Wishful thinking. It is time to talk about ethics. Yes, ethics. Historically, lawyers and technologists lived in different worlds. The lawyers were over here, and IT was over there. Here's the reality: Technology - whether we are talking cloud computing, ediscovery or data security generally - IS very much the business of lawyers. This post focuses on three recent documents, ranging from formal opinions to draft issue papers, issued by three very prominent Bar associations -- the American Bar Association (ABA), the New York State Bar Association (NYSBA), and the State Bar of California (CA Bar). These opinions and papers all drive home the following points: as succinctly stated by the ABA, "[l]awyers must take reasonable precautions to ensure that their clients' confidential information remains secure"; AND lawyers must keep themselves educated on changes in technology and in the law relating to technology. The question, as always, is what is "reasonable"? Also, what role should Bar associations play in providing guidelines/best practices and/or mandating compliance with particular data security rules? Technology, and lawyer use of technology, is evolving at a pace that no Bar association can hope to meet. At the end of the day, do the realities of the modern business world render moot any effort by the Bar(s) to provide guidance or impose restrictions? Read on and tell us - and the ABA - what you think. … Continue Reading

Information Security Standards and Certifications in Contracting

It often makes sense to refer to an information security management framework or standard in an outsourcing contract, but this is usually not very meaningful unless the customer also understands what particular security measures the vendor will apply to protect the customer's data. … Continue Reading

Security Breach Notices for Canadian Data

Notice of significant security breaches involving personal information is recommended under federal Privacy Commissioner guidelines and legally required for custodians of personal health information in Ontario. Albert's new Bill 54, not yet in force, sets a new standard for mandatory notification to the provincial Privacy Commissioner, who can determine whether and how individuals must be notified. … Continue Reading

A Closer Look at the PCI Compliance and Encryption Requirements of Nevada’s Security of Personal Information Law

Since approximately 2005, the state of Nevada has had a fairly comprehensive data privacy law on its books: the Nevada Security of Personal Information Law (the “Law”). Prior to 2009, the Law imposed various requirements concerning the protection of personal information of Nevada residents, including requirements concerning security breach notice, the implementation of reasonable security … Continue Reading

Information Security Clauses and Certifications – Part 1

Service contracts that involve protected personal information should include provisions allocating responsibility for protecting that information and responding to security breaches. Increasingly, this means incorporating specific references to applicable laws and information security standards, and often certifications of conformance. … Continue Reading

Code or Clear? Encryption Requirements (Part 4)

In other posts, I talked about the trend toward more prescriptive encryption requirements in laws and regulations governing certain categories of personal data and other protected information. Here's an overview of the standards and related products available for safe (and legally defensible) handling of protected data. … Continue Reading

Code or Clear? Encryption Requirements (Part 3)

In other posts, I addressed the trend in the United States to require encryption for certain categories of personal data that are sought by ID thieves and fraudsters - especially Social Security Numbers, driver's license numbers, and bank account or payment card details - as well as for medical information, which individuals tend to consider especially sensitive. These concerns are not, of course, limited to the United States. Comprehensive data protection laws in Europe, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and elsewhere include general obligations to maintain "reasonable" or "appropriate" or "proportional" security measures, usually without further elaboration. Some nations have gone further, however, to specify security measures. … Continue Reading

Code or Clear? Encryption Requirements under Information Privacy and Security Laws (Part 1)

"Exactly what data do we have to encrypt, and how?" That's a common question posed by IT and legal departments, HR and customer service managers, CIOs and information security professionals. In the past, they made their own choices about encryption, balancing the risks of compromised data against the costs of encryption. Those costs are measured not merely by expense but also by increased processing load, user-unfriendliness, and the remote but real possibility of lost or corrupted decryption keys resulting in inaccessible data. After weighing the costs and benefits, most enterprises decided against encryption for all but the most sensitive applications and data categories. … Continue Reading

TJX Settles with State Attorneys General for $9.75 Million

The TJX breach saga came a little closer to an end (excluding of course the still-pending case being pursued by a couple of issuing banks) with the announcement of a settlement with 41 State attorneys general that brought actions under their State’s respective consumer fraud and deceptive practices laws (a copy of the settlement document … Continue Reading

Legally Mandated Encryption.

Two New State Laws Mandate Encryption of Personal Information Over the past decade a multitude of information security and privacy laws have been passed mandating some level of security over sensitive information.  In most instances legislators and regulators have opted for “technology-neutral” laws obligating “appropriate,” (e.g. “GLB”) “reasonable” (e.g. Cal AB 1950) or “adequate” (e.g. … Continue Reading

New Bills Concerning Encryption and Retail Liability

The New Year is bringing renewed attempts to legislate data security. Michigan and Washington both have bills pending that would make retailers liable for payment card data security breaches (Michigan bill – Washington bill). The Washington bill explicitly requires compliance with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard to avoid liability. Both States also have … Continue Reading

New Jersey Security Requirements (including encryption of personal information)

A proposed New Jersey regulation that may be come law in 2008. It has very specific requirements around encryption of personal information at rest and in transit. In particular, if these rules pass organizations would be required to encrypt according to the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) recommended standard, which is the Advanced Encryption Standard … Continue Reading
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