Are We Living in a Post-Disclosure, Opt-In World?
Today's New York Times Media Decoder Blog features an "on-the-record" discussion with Federal Trade Commission chairman Jon Leibowitz and Bureau of Consumer Protection chief David Vladeck. The question presented: "Has Internet Gone Beyond Privacy Policies?" The FTC (and Congress, for that matter) continue to signal that change may be imminent in the world of online privacy policies and traditional notions of opt-out consent.
The dilemma remains - if consumers don't want to read privacy policies, what would constitute true notice and consent? And, in the Web 2.0 world with consumers' insatiable appetite for on-demand, customized and interactive content, how can that process be handled in a manner that is both meaningful and consumer-friendly? What do consumers really want? And are their expectations regarding privacy simply inconsistent with the modern realities of social networking? Just yesterday, the blogosphere was abuzz with news of the Facebook CEO's comments at the Crunchies Awards that "[p]eople have really gotten comfortable sharing more information and different kinds but more openly and with more people."
At the end of the day, the real question (and answer) may have more to do with what constitutes "personal information," what consumers "reasonably" expect in today's world, and whether the sharing and use of certain kinds of information should be regulated.
In our current legal structure, even though such information flows around the world at breakneck speed, the definition of personal information ultimately depends on where you reside - and that, in turn, has grown out of social and cultural expectations. In the United States this has traditionally meant information that can be used to identify and victimize you (i.e., identity theft) - Social Security number, financial account number, and now, to a growing extent, medical information - although, in some new state statutes, the definition is much more broad. In Europe, the answer, for cultural and historical reasons, continues to be much more expansive, encompassing just about anything that can identify an individual.
So when an individual shares information on Facebook about his or her favorite music, or holiday plans, or the color of a piece of clothing, does that constitute "personal information"? What are consumers' reasonable expectations about how that information, if disclosed publicly -- or not so publicly (e.g., to one's "friends") -- should be used? And should the government regulate the sharing and use of such information by data brokers, social networks, cloud computing vendors, and advertisers?
Last year, the FTC introduced self-regulatory principles for behavioral advertising, but issued a warning that advertisers had one last chance before the FTC would take further steps to regulate. Has that time come? Mr. Vladeck told the New York Times today that the FTC will issue a report in June or July. Chairman Leibowitz said:
I have a sense, and it’s still amorphous, that we might head toward opt-in.
What would such opt-in look like and how would it operate? Is any opt-in solution manageable in the online world? Can any proposed model keep up with rapid changes in technology and consumer expectations? And will this focus on online privacy issues affect and/or eclipse the progress of the many pending federal data security and breach notification bills?
We shall see.